By Sidney Ochs

Sidney Ochs starts off his survey with a chronological examine the historical past of nerves from the 5th century B.C. to the early eighteenth century to illustrate the advance of our wisdom of the molecular mechanisms of neuronal functionality. Ochs then adopts a thematic process, contemplating key issues from the eighteenth century to the current. the quantity will function a useful source for historians of neuroscience and medication, philosophers of technology and medication, and neuroscientists.

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Extra resources for A History of Nerve Functions: From Animal Spirits to Molecular Mechanisms

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PULM, pulmonary; SUP, superior. From (Singer, 1925), Figure 29. the site of a dislocation or fracture, a pulley arrangement served to pull the bones away from the site to reduce it. Perhaps this alternate mechanical model of Galen represents some lingering identification of nerves with tendons. But still in accord with his more usually expressed view of a flow of animal spirits in hollow nerves, Galen noted at one point that the power of the nerve is not related to its size (thickness), as would be expected if the nerve were acting on the basis of a mechanical action.

22–23. 25 (Souques, 1936), p. 209. (Siegel, 1968), pp. 304–307. , p. 193. 13:43 P1: FCH/FFX P2: FCH/FFX 052124742Xc02 QC: FCH/FFX T1: FCH CB616-Ochs-v2 December 29, 2003 GALEN’S PHYSIOLOGY OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 31 [4th ventricle], then the animal falls into a very heavy and pronounced stupor. 28 These effects, that Galen supposed were due to an interruption of the function of the 4th ventricle, were more likely to have been the result of damage to the underlying brain stem in which the vital functions were later found to be controlled.

See (Dobson, 1925) and (von Staden, 1989) for Herophilus, and (Dobson, 1927) for Erasistratus. (Solmsen, 1961). 90 (Dobson, 1927). 91 (Wilson, 1959). (Longrigg, 1993), pp. 86, 87. Damage to this region can rapidly cause death. Modern studies have shown this to occur through interference with the medulla and the autonomic centers in it rather than to the cerebellum per se (Neuburger, 1981), (Ochs, 1983). 20:55 P1: FCH/FFX P2: FCH/FFX 052124742Xc01 QC: FCH/FFX CB616-Ochs-v2 T1: FCH December 29, 2003 INTRODUCTION 23 The central tenet in Erasistratus’ schematization, that pneuma and not blood is contained in the arteries, appears to have been founded on the anatomical technique he used in his animal studies.

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