By Robert A. Wright

Wright examines those church buildings' old connections with the skin international and their newly cultivated curiosity in overseas politics. He argues that the clerical and missionary élite's imaginative and prescient of "a new internationalism" used to be careworn by means of primarily "Victorian" rules of the inherent superiority of Protestant Christianity, political democracy, and Anglo-Saxon "race characteristics." Tensions among its conventional global view and the recent realities of overseas and inter-racial kin finally made this imaginative and prescient untenable. in accordance with Wright, the Canadian church buildings of mainline Protestantism attempted to discover a center floor. They comfortable the hyperlink among conversion and westernization and got here to just accept the legitimacy of indigenous church buildings in Asia and Africa. even supposing they eventually caught to their topic of Christian brotherhood and repair, they faced the theological demanding situations of reconciling Christianity with different trust structures and the highbrow revolution within the West. And, even if they paid ritual appreciate to the League of countries and collective protection and authorised conflict in 1939 as beneficial, they confirmed willing curiosity in disarmament. whereas the ambivalence of this center flooring had a few tragic outcomes, akin to the disability of the Canadian Protestant management to foyer forcefully on behalf of both ecu Jewish refugees within the Nineteen Thirties or eastern- Canadians interred in the course of international struggle II, there have been successes in humanitarian, reduction, and academic paintings overseas. The church buildings' actions additionally contributed to shaping the foreign position of the Christian group and their eventual attractiveness of either ethnic range and the constructing international locations' correct to self-determination laid a lot of the basis for Canada's post-war method of overseas reduction and development.

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In February 1922 the Canadian Churchman, as though it had never held a contrary opinion, praised the decision to allow Germany back into her former mission fields: "It is certainly a triumph of the Christian spirit. "51 Elsewhere Canadians were urged to think of Goethe, Kant, and Beethoven when they thought of Germany! 52 The essential pragmatism and humanity of Canada's Protestant leaders prevailed against their wartime patriotism and they urged Canadians to reflect on the travails of postwar Germany in a spirit of Christian charity and understanding.

85 Canadian churchmen did not, by and large, rest their hopes for the world on the pacifist movement, the League of Nations, or the disarmament campaign. They directed their energies instead toward the enlargement and the modernization of the traditional agencies of Christian internationalism - denominational fellowships and especially missions - and toward the creation of new international Christian institutions that would advance the cause of world unity and brotherhood. From the heart-rending work of the international relief agencies to the lofty heights of the world-wide ecumenical movement, Canadians were present at the origins of a far-reaching campaign within Protestant Christendom to unify the world.

Because Rowell had a well-developed idea of what the new internationalism would mean in practical terms that is, the supremacy of international law - he considered the conference to have been a resounding success: "The Washington Conference held some months ago was a splendid illustration of what may be accomplished when nations meet to plan together for the preservation of peace rather than to compete with each other in preparation for war. The naval limitation agreement concluded at the Washington Conference, the agreement in reference to the Pacific and the agreements in reference to China, marked the real application of true Christian principles to international relations, and recorded a great step in advance in the development of a better international order"77 Largely through Rowell's leadership in the mid-i92os, in fact, but also through their own reasoned assessments of the world at large, many liberal churchmen did not despair of the disarmament process after the Washington conference.

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