By J.N. Gurtu, Amit Gurtu.

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9(a), 9(b)1. 10 ~----------------- Vo~----------------- I (mA) t t -+ Time (sec) --. TIme (sec) (b) (a) Fig. 9. 63 Vo' Compare it with theoretical value ""RC. (b) For discharging of capacitor Plot one graph in voltage and time, and another in current and time. 37 V. Compare it with the theoretical value. Result: Time constant of circuit from the graph = ... sec. Theoretical value of time constant = ... sec. Precautions: ~onstant (i) Voltmeter and ammeter must have small test counts. (ii) Appropriate values of Rand C, giving quite a good number of observations, should be used.

44%. We can summarise the results of the analysis as follows: (a) The values obtained by Analyst 1 are accurate (very close to the correct result), but the precision is inferior to the results given by Analyst 2. The values obtained by Analyst 2 are very precise but are not accurate. (b) The results of Analyst 1 face on both sides of the mean value and could be attributed to random errors. It is apparent that there is a constant (systematic) error present in the results of Analyst 2. Precision was previously described as the reproducibility of a measurement.

The difference between the mean of an adequate number of results and the amount of the constituent actually present, usually expressed as parts per thousand, is a measure of the accuracy of the method in the absence of foreign substances. The constituent in question win usually have to be determined in the presence of other substances, and it will, therefore, be necessary to know the effect of these upon the determination. This will require testing the influence of a large number of elements, each in varying amounts.

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