By L. Wolfinbarger Jr, V. Sutherland, L. Braendle, G. Sutherland (auth.), Peter Kittel (eds.)

The Hyatt Regency lodge, Columbus, Ohio used to be the venue for the 1995 Cryogenic Engineering convention. The assembly used to be held together with the overseas Cryogenic fabrics convention. Jim Peeples, of CVI, Inc., was once convention chairman. Columbus is the house of the Battelle Memorial Institute, a pioneer in cryogenic fabrics improvement; the house of CVI, Inc., and Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc., major brands of cryogenic gear; and it's the domestic of Ohio nation collage, the place learn on liquid helium has lengthy been performed. this system consisted of 315 CEC papers, approximately a similar quantity as for CEC-91. This was once the second one greatest variety of papers ever submitted to the CEC. of those, 252 papers are released right here, in quantity forty-one of Advances in Cryogenic Engineering. once more the quantity is released in books. This quantity contains a variety of photos taken through the awards lunch on July 20, 1995. pictures have frequently been taken in the course of the meetings, yet they've got by no means been used. the photographs are of the awardees, the convention chairs, and the organizers. they're allotted via out the books on pages that might another way were clean. the images are available at the following pages: 28, 232, 334, 536, 640, 826, 990, 1032, 1202, 1462,1682,1888, and 1994.

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Plenum Press, New York (1987) p. 147. 7. C. Korber and G. Rau, Ice crystal growth in aqueous solutions. E. M. , Plenum Press, New York (1987) p. 173. 8. L. van der Berg and D. Rose, Effects of freezing on the pH and composition of sodium and potassium phosphate solutions: the reciprocal system KH2P04-Na2HP04-H10. Archives Biochemistry & Biophysics 81 :319 (1959). 9. 1. H. M. Crowe and M. W. Franks and S. , John Wiley & Sons, New York (1982) p. 295. 10. 1. Ashwood-Smith, G. J Morris, R. c. Appleton, and R.

CONTROLLED FREEZING BY DIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION As shown above, simple freezing procedures often fail to provide a homogeneous, position-independent cooling rate throughout the sample needed for an optimum cryopreservation. S Directional solidification processes permit the separate control of the velocity of the growing solid phase v and the temperature gradient G = I1T/l1x at the phase front. The local cooling rate B which is generally used to characterize the cryopreservation process in cryobiology is simply given by the product B = G .

15 Figure 3. The Bridgman technique is not applicable for the directional solidification of macroscopic aqueous samples with high pushing velocites. In this case additional temperature gradients occur that cause curved is0therms and thus position dependent cooling rates (illustrated for a cylindrical sample). Since the Bridgman technique allows the individual control of the temperature gradient G and the ice front velocity v (the absolute value is identical to the pushing velocity) it has further advantages.

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