By Milton Orchin, Roger S. Macomber, Allan R. Pinhas, R. Marshall Wilson
This publication is a uncomplicated reference offering concise, exact definitions of the most important phrases and ideas of natural chemistry. no longer easily an inventory of natural compounds, constructions, and nomenclatures, the publication is geared up into topical chapters during which similar phrases and ideas look in shut proximity to each other, giving context to the data and supporting to make high-quality differences extra comprehensible. parts lined comprise: bonding, symmetry, stereochemistry, sorts of natural compounds, reactions, mechansims, spectroscopy, and photochemistry.
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Additional info for Vocabulary and Concepts of Organic Chemistry
Such bonds may be treated theoretically by either molecular orbital (MO) theory or valence bond (VB) theory (see introductory material). 4 VALENCE BOND (VB) THEORY This theory postulates that bond formation occurs as two initially distant atomic orbitals, each containing one valence electron of opposite spin, are brought into proximity to each other. As the overlap of the atomic orbitals increases, each electron is attracted to the opposite nucleus eventually to form a localized two-center, two-electron bond at a distance between the atoms corresponding to a minimum in the potential energy of the system (see Morse curve, Sect.
And Orchin, M. ” Tetrahedron 10, 212 (1960). , and Burdett, J. An Introduction to Molecular Orbitals. Oxford University Press: New York, 1993. , and Jaffé, H. H. Symmetry, Orbitals and Spectra. Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1971. Streitwieser, A. Molecular Orbital Theory for Organic Chemists. John Wiley & Sons: New York, 1961. 38 5:14 PM Page 54 Delocalized (Multicenter) Bonding Delocalized Bond Delocalized Bonding Delocalized π Molecular Orbitals Resonance Structures Curved Arrow (Electron Pushing) Notation Conjugated Systems Essential Single Bond Essential Double Bonds Hyperconjugation Resonance Energy The Free Electron Method (FEM) Electron Density qr Charge Density ζ (Charge Distribution) π Bond Order ρrs Free Valence Index Fr Hamiltonian Operator H Coulomb Integral αi Overlap Integral Sij Resonance Integral βij Hückel Molecular Orbital (HMO) Method Secular Determinant Determination of the Coefficients of Hückel Molecular Orbitals Hückel’s Rule π Molecular Orbital Energy Hückel (4n ϩ 2) Molecular Orbital Energy Levels Delocalization Energy Antiaromatic Compounds Localization Energy Alternant Hydrocarbons Even Alternant Hydrocarbons Odd Alternant Hydrocarbon Systems π Nonbonding Molecular Orbital Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Arenes) Kekulé Structures Nonalternant Hydrocarbons Annulenes Heteroaromatic Compounds π-Electron-Excessive Compounds The Vocabulary and Concepts of Organic Chemistry, Second Edition, by Milton Orchin, Roger S.
10. The oxidation numbers of carbon and sulfur in various compounds. The atoms inside the curves between atoms are in each case the more electronegative atoms, and the bonding electrons are, therefore, associated with those atoms in determining the oxidation numbers. qxd 5/17/2005 32 5:13 PM Page 32 BONDS BETWEEN ADJACENT ATOMS atoms it is ϩ1. For monoatomic ions, the oxidation number is the same as the charge on the ion. For a neutral compound (all the compounds shown in Fig. , they have no net charge), the sum of the oxidation numbers of all atoms must equal zero.